Standardisation of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. – A Homoeopathic drug.

Standardisation of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. – A Homoeopathic drug.

Dr. P. Subramanian1,  Dr. P. Padma Rao1, Dr. P. Sudhakar1, Dr. M. Nagaraju1 , Dr. P. S. Narayana1

1Drug Standardisation Unit, Hyderabad, Telangana.

Address for correspondence:

Dr. P. Subramanian,

Drug Standardisation Unit,

O.U.B. 32, Road No. 4, Habsiguda,

Hyderabad – 500 007.

Email:drpsdsu@gmail.com

Abstract

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz) DC. is a shrub belonging to the family Rutaceae. Leaves of this plant are used as medicine in Homoeopathy. Leaves are alternate, imparipinnate; leaflets 3-5, aromatic, elliptic oblong, base cuneate, margin entire, petiole short.  The surface of the leaf is striated and dispersed with bright dotted oil glands.  Leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic and tetracytic stomata. Midvein is ribbed on both sides. Vascular bundles in midvein are enclosed by sclerenchymatous sheath. Petiole in T.S.  is sub-spherical with two small lateral ridges on adaxial.  Ground parenchyma of petiole is interspersed with oil glands. Medullary rays interrupt the xylem. The pith and ground parenchyma is often interspersed with tanniniferous and crystaline idioblasts.  Physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz. extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per ml, total solids, alcohol content, along with UV absorption and TLC studies have been worked out for mother tincture.

Introduction

Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. (Syn. Glycosmis arborea (Roxb) DC. Limonia pentaphylla Retz.) also known as Atista indica in Homoeopathy ( Varma & Vaid, 2007) is an erect shrub belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is known as ‘anam’ in Tamil, ‘bannimbu’ in Hindi, ‘ashavashakota’in Sanskrit and ‘golugu’ in Telugu. It is found distributed in tropical and sub tropical Himalayas and all over India as forest undergrowth and in Assam to south India (Varma et al., 2010). Leaves are used in the preparation of medicine. In Homoeopathy and indigenous systems, it is used in malarial fevers besides as a remedy for worms, colic pain, biliary and gastric problems, dysentery and CNS depressant, cough, rheumatism, anemia, jaundice and skin ailments (Sivarajan & Balachandran, 1995, Varma et al., 2010, Anonymous, 2009). It was first proved in Homoeopathy by Dr. K.K. Bhattacharya (Ghose, 1984). The leaves of G. pentaphylla contain a glycoside, glycosmin, and alkaloids, glycosine, arborine, (Anonymous, 2009); kukersaginine and skimmianine (Bhattacharya & Chowdhary, 1980). A review of literature reveals that the Pharmacognostic studies on leaf of G.pentaphylla though available is scanty and confined (Shantha and Gopakumar, 1988, Anonymous, 2007). In view of the importance of the drug in Homoeopathy, a detailed pharmacognostic & physico-chemical studies on leaves is carried out to lay down the standards.